Question :

How soil is formed?




Class 9



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Answer / Solution

Soil is formed by breaking down of rocks at or near the surface of the earth through various physical, chemical, and biological processes by various factors such as the sun, water, wind, and living organisms


During day time, the rocks are heated up by solar rays. This causes the rocks to expand. During night time, these rocks cool down and contracts, thus the cracks devlop in the rock and they break down.


It helps in breaking of rocks in two ways:

  • It goes into the cracks and crevices formed in the rocks. When this water freezes, its volume increases. As a result, the size of the cracks also increases. This helps in the weathering of rocks.
  • Water moving in fast speed carries big and small particles of rock downstream. These rocks rub against each other, resulting in breaking down of rocks.These smaller particles are carried away by running water and deposited down its path.


Strong winds carry away rocks, which causes rubbing of rocks. This results in the breaking down of rocks into smaller and smaller particles.

Living Organism: 

Some living organisms like lichens help in the formation of soil. Lichens grow on rock surfaces and converts them into powdery form and make soil layer. In the same way, the plants like moss also help in the making of fine soil particles.

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